Inflammation is a natural defense of the immune system that protects the body against the invasion of harmful stimuli and pathogens.
In the acute phase of infection, the immune first line of defense white blood cells, macrophages stimulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines with an aim to destroy all invaders which try to enter the body.
Most cases of acute infection are stopped at this phase and the wound is healed itself quickly.
However, if the wound is too large, then the recovery may take a longer period of time and through 4 overlap recovery stages.
Any interruption in the overlapped recover stage may cause the formation of scars, similar to those of overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Diseases associated with chronic inflammation induced by protein, lipid and cellular damage include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease,... and cancers.
In other words, prolonged low-grade inflammation caused by continuing the production of proinflammatory cytokines due to an immune response that can not kill off all invaders in a set period between 3-8 weeks can result in serious and chronic diseases.
The results have been found to cause cell death and alternation of cell DNA.
Believe it or not people with low-grade chronic inflammation are prone to psychological stress that links to greater risk for depression, heart disease. particularly the body ability to regulate the inflammatory response and normal defense.
Out of many risk factors involved the onset of chronic inflammatory diseases, some researchers suggested the promotion of a high-fat diet in the Western world may correlate to the rise of the condition.
Dr. Yehui Duan, the lead scientist wrote, "In recent years, chronic overnutrition, such as consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD), has been increasingly viewed as a significant modifiable risk factor for diseases such as diabetes and certain types of cancer".
And, "the recent scientific literature about HFD-induced inflammation and subsequent development of diseases and cancer, with an emphasis on mechanisms involved. Given the expanding global epidemic of excessive HFD intake, understanding the impacts of an HFD on these medical conditions, gaining great insights into possible underlying mechanisms, and developing effective therapeutic strategies are of great importance".
Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide,. a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.
In the urgency to find a natural and potential compound for the treatment of diseases associated with inflammation, researchers examined the active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide) anti-inflammatory activity.
Before incubated with alliin, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed a significant increase in proteins involved in the production pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 hour.
According to the tested assay in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated for 24 h with 100 μmol/L alliin, the bioactive compound inhibited such increase.
Furthermore, the overexpression of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 associated with cell differentiation including cell death caused by LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes was also decreased following alliin treatment.
Additionally, alliin prevented the expression of inflammation in facilitating the alternation of cell DNA by modulating the gene expressions involved in immune response such as tumor suppressive gene and inhibiting the genes related to cancer.
Dr. Saray Quintero-Fabián, the lead scientist wrote, " The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile".
Taken altogether, alliin may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with inflammation, depending on the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum) Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes by Saray Quintero-Fabián,1,2 Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún,1 Manuel Vázquez-Carrera,3 and Rocío Ivette López-Roa. (Hindawi)
(2) Inflammatory Links Between High Fat Diets and Diseases by Yehui Duan,1,† Liming Zeng,2,† Changbing Zheng,3 Bo Song,3 Fengna Li,1 Xiangfeng Kong,1and Kang Xu. (PMC)
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