The prostate warped around the urethra is a gland of the male reproductive system found in front of the rectum and just below the bladder and responsible for making some of the semen that carries sperm.
Prostate cancer is a medical and chronic condition caused by cells growth irregular in the prostate gland. Most cases of prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during the Physical (rectum) exams.
Most cases of prostate cancer begin in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of the prostate tissue before penetrating into deeper layers to induce colonization.
At the advanced stage, the prostate cancer cells can spread to the distant parts of the body, leading to secondary metastasis.
Prostate cancer can be diagnosed by* Blood tests
* Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
In DRE, your doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel the surface of the prostate gland to check for any abnormality of the prostate.
* Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS)
Ultrasound allows your doctor to visualize and assess the size of your prostate and to check for any abnormality and surrounding area with an image taken from the test. In transrectal ultrasound, a probe is inserted into the rectum to emit ultrasonic impulses against the prostate.
* Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test
The test is to measure the levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a protein produced by the prostate. The high levels of PSA may be an indication of higher risk of the presence of prostate cancer.
* Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) test
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a test to measure the level of prostatic acid phosphatase, an enzyme produced by the prostate. The higher the levels of PAP is an indication of the disease progression.
* Prostate biopsy
In a prostate biopsy, samples of the prostate are taken by a thin, tube-like instrument to examine under microscopy to review the stage of cancer.
According to the statistics, prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men particularly in older over 65, after skin cancer. in 2019, approximately 174,650 men in the US will be diagnosed with prostate cancer.
The average age of diagnosis is 66.
Carotenoids are a class of mainly yellow, orange, or red fat-soluble pigments, including lycopene and carotene, found abundantly in ripe tomato, pumpkins, carrots, corn, and daffodils.
On finding a potential compound for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer, researchers examined the effect of carotenoid levels on the risk of high-grade prostate cancer.
The study included the measurement of plasma levels of carotenoids and genotyped 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, XRCC1, and OGG1 in 559 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy.
According to the results from tested assays, the serum of circulated carotenoid levels was inversely associated with the risk of high-grade prostate cancer, odds ratios (OR) of 0.34 compared to the highest versus lowest quartiles.
In chemical analysis, the relative odds ratio of α-carotene,β-carotene, lycopene, and total carotenoids.was 0.31, .55, 34, and 0.37 respectively.
In other words, all major phytochemicals found in carotenoid work synergistically to enhance the efficacy of carotenoid against the risk of high-grade prostate cancer.
Furthermore, the presence of the SNPs rs25489 in XRCC1, rs699473 in SOD3 and rs1052133 in OGG1 genotypes also was found to modify the activity of α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, respectively.
Believe it or not, the high serum of lycopene was found among men with Gleason score ≤ 3 + 4 and lower FGA (P = 0.04).
More precisely, the efficacy of carotenoid reduced the risk of prostate cancer, however, the risk of high-grade invasive prostate cancer are depending on the levels of lycopene.
Dr. Nordström T, the lead scientist said, " higher lycopene level was associated with less genomic instability among men with the low-grade disease which is novel and supports the hypothesis that lycopene may inhibit the progression of prostate cancer early in its natural history".
Taken altogether, carotenoids may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of carotenoid in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Associations between circulating carotenoids, genomic instability and the risk of high-grade prostate cancer by Nordström T1,2,3, Van Blarigan EL1,2, Ngo V1, Roy R4, Weinberg V5, Song X6, Simko J1,7, Carroll PR1, Chan JM1,2, Paris PL. (PubMed)
(2) Anticancer properties of carotenoids in prostate cancer. A review by Soares Nda C1, Teodoro AJ2, Lotsch PF3, Granjeiro JM3, Borojevic R. (PubMed)
(3) Prostate Cancer by Kyle J, Norton
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