Genotoxicity is a process of destruction on a cell's genetic material (DNA, RNA), leading to gene mutation.
In other words, genotoxins are mutagens, the substances which have been found to induce cancer. Most common genotoxins are radiation and toxic chemicals.
Believe it or not, besides causing cancer, genotoxins are found to induce various types of genetic diseases, by the damage the germ cell.
Some researchers suggested that the damage of DNA may be controlled if the genotoxins are identified through the use of anti antimutagens /anti-clastogens that suppress or inhibit the mutagenesis process.
Most common causes of genetic damage or alternation are reactive oxygen species (ROS), the unstable and genotoxic molecules that exist everywhere in the environment and inside the human body.
By regulating the levels of free radicals in the body through the increased antioxidant enzyme inside the host or from the dietary sources, oxidative stress induced by ROS may be controlled. Thereby, reducing the risk of gene damage.
Dr. Mohamed SAKS, the lead scientist wrote in the article published in the Global Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, "There are mainly two mechanisms of anti-mutagenesis:
* Desmutagenesis in which the factors on the mutagens are somehow inactivated,
* Bio-antimutagenesis, in which the factors act on the process of mutagenesis or by repairing the damaged DNA that results in the decreased frequency of DNA mutation . a number of cells have a DNA repair system by which they try to control the DNA mutations naturally".
Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.
With an aim to find a potential treatment cancer, researchers examined the genotoxic effect of
pineapple extract on oral cancer cell line by DNA fragmentation.
According to the DNA fragmentation assay, bromelain showed a significantly genotoxic activity by invading the cancer nucleus and causes damage to the nucleic acid.
In the examine 3 different doses of bromelain incubated with oral cancer cells, DNA fragmentation occurred in all three concentrations.
In other words, bromelain inhibited oral cancer cell progression through genotoxic properties.
Furthermore, bromelain also inhibited the expression of MUC1, a glycoprotein associated with tumor cells invasive, metastatic, and chemo-resistant properties in breast and pancreatic cancer cells.
Moreover, bromelain used a combination with either cisplatin and 5-FU also enhanced conventional medicine efficacy.
Additionally, in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) expressed MUC1, administration of bromelain also affected the viability of MPM cells adversely.
Taken altogether, bromelain may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of cancer through its genotoxic activity, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Genotoxicity analysis of pineapple extract on oral cancer cell line by DNA fragmentation by A.A. Mahtani, R. Gayathri, and V. Vishnu Priya. (Research Gate)
(2) Anticancer Property of Bromelain With Therapeutic Potential in Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma by Krishna Pillai, Javed Akhter, Terence C Chua & David Lawson Morris. (Taylor and Francis Online)
(3) Genotoxicity: Mechanisms, Testing Guidelines and Methods by Mohamed SAKS, Sabita Upreti, Rajendra SV* and Raman Dang. (the Global Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences)
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