Kidney cancer or renal cancer is primary cancer caused by irregular cell growth in the kidney tissue.
Kidneys are to bean-shaped organs located below the rib cage, one on each side of your spine with a function to filter out blood and remove waste through urinary secretion.
The kidney also plays a critical in maintaining the levels of fluids in the body, by removing extra fluids to make urine.
Furthermore, the kidney also regulates electrolytes, blood pressure, maintains acid-base balance, produces hormone calcitriol, renin, and erythropoietin.
There are 2 most common types of kidney cancer including
* Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of adult kidney cancer, originated in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule that transport primary urine, accounting for over 85% of all kidney cancer diagnosed.
* Urothelial carcinoma is also called transitional cell carcinoma accounting for 10% to 15% of the kidney cancers diagnosed in adults.
The stages of renal cell carcinoma are
1. Stage 0
Kidney (renal cells) cancer is classified as Stage 0 if the cancerous cell has not penetrated in deeper tissue but in the surface of the kidney lining.
2. Stage I
In stage I, The cancerous cells are no longer in the surface but have invaded into deep kidney lining, but still completely inside the kidney.
a. Stage IA1
The cancer is not ≤ 3 mm (1/8 inch) deep and ≤ 7 mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.1. Stage IA1: The spreading is < 3mm(1/8 inch) deep and & less than 7mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.2. Stage IA2: The invasion area is ≥ 3 mm but ≤ 5 mm (about 1/5 inch) deep and & less than 7 mm (about 1/4 inch) wide.
b. Stage IB: cancer in this stage have invaded the connective tissue, & less than 5mm (1/5 inch).
b.1. Stage IB1: Cancer is 4 cm large (1 3/4 inches).
b.2. Stage IB2: Cancer is ≥ 4 cm (1 3/4 inches) but & less than 5cm (1/5 inch)
3. Stage II
In stage II, the cancerous cells have spread to distant tissues but are still within the kidney.
4. Stage III
In this stage, cancerous cells have spread to the tissues immediately surrounding the kidney.
5. Stage IV
In the stage, IV is the most advanced stage of renal cell carcinoma as cancerous cells have spread to the distant parts of the body
Lycopene is a phytochemical in the class of carotenoid, a natural pigment with no vitamin A activity found abundantly in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, and papayas,
Tomatoes provide about 80% of the lycopene in the world diet. In plants, lycopene protects the host against excessive photodamage and perform various functions in photosynthesis.
With an aim to find a potential compound for the treatment of kidney cancer, researchers examined the role of a lycopene-rich diet in the development of RCC in the TSC2 mutant Eker rat model.
Selected 10-week old female Eker rats (n=90) in the study were assigned in equal numbers to receive 0, 100 or 200mg/kg of lycopene as part of their daily diet sacrificed at the 18 months.
According to the tested assays, tumor size was decreased from 94% in control animals to 65% in the lycopene group.
Furthermore, the mean numbers of renal carcinomas and tumor length were statistically significantly decreased in the lycopene group compared to untreated controls. More precisely, tumor numbers decreased (P<0.002) in the lycopene group were linearly (P<0.003) to the increased lycopene injection from 0 to 200.
Compared to lycopene treated group, the control rats fed only the basal diet had a greater length of tumors.
Additional differentiation of lycopene efficacy, researchers found that lycopene inhibited the kidney cancer cell by blocking the protein in signaling cell proliferation, and in promoting the cancer cell invasive response.
Based on the findings, researchers wrote, "dietary supplementation with lycopene attenuates the development of renal cell cancers in the predisposed TSC2 mutant Eker rat model".
Taken altogether, lycopene may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of kidney cancer, pending on the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of alliin in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Lycopene in the prevention of renal cell cancer in the TSC2 mutant Eker rat model by Sahin K1, Cross B2, Sahin N1, Ciccone K2, Suleiman S2, Osunkoya AO2, Master V2, Harris W2, Carthon B2, Mohammad R3, Bilir B2, Wertz K4, Moreno CS2, Walker CL5, Kucuk O. (PubMed)
(2) A tomato lycopene complex protects the kidney from cisplatin-induced injury via affecting oxidative stress as well as Bax, Bcl-2, and HSPs expression by Dogukan A1, Tuzcu M, Agca CA, Gencoglu H, Sahin N, Onderci M, Ozercan IH, Ilhan N, Kucuk O, Sahin K. (PubMed)
(3) Most common Types of Cancer -Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma) by Kyle J. Norton
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