Angiogenesis refers to the formation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature.
Angiogenesis, on one hand, plays a critical role in repairing the tissue damages including arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction. On another hand, the expression of angiogenesis has been found to cause diseases and induce progression of retinopathies, benign tumor, and cancer.
In other words, abnormal blood vessel growth that cause either excessive or insufficient has been linked to underlying many deadly and debilitating conditions.
Under normal condition, the development of angiogenesis totally depends on the functional demands of the body. For example, exercise stimulates angiogenesis in skeletal muscle and heart and a lack of exercise can lead to capillary regression.
Clearly, these results demonstrated the needs of angiogenesis for the body to function better and the formation of new blood vessels occurs throughout human life.
However, in the cancer perspective, new blood vessel growth is important for cancer proliferation and metastatic spread. The survival of tumor cells totally depends on an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients.
Dr. the lead scientist said, "Levels of expression of angiogenic factors reflect the aggressiveness of tumor cells. The discovery of angiogenic inhibitors should help to reduce both morbidity and mortality from carcinomas".
In other words, if we can stop the tumor in stimulating the production of new blood vessels to supply energy for them to grow, we may cure cancer.
Bilberry is a species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium, belonging to the family Ericaceae, native to Northern Europe.
The plant berry has been used as herbs in traditional medicine for the treatment of acute and chronic diarrhea, gastritis, gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer, enterocolitis, ulcerative colitis, anemia, cystitis, kidney disease, and psoriasis, diabetes, etc.
With an aim to find potential treatment for diseases associated with angiogenesis,with no side effects, researchers examined the antiangiogenic properties and antioxidant activities (a) of the main anthocyanidins (delphinidin, cyanidin, and malvidin) found as constituents in Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) anthocyanosides (VMA) and (b) of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC).
Anthocyanidins exerted a significant inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) associated with the grow od new blood vessel in a concentration-dependent manner.
Anthocyanidin at 3 and/or 10 microM are the most effective compared to those of NAC at 1 microM (the only concentration tested).
Moreover, both anthocyanidin (0.3-10 microM) and NAC (1-1000 microM) concentration-dependently also exerted a significantly scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical.
The findings suggested that VMA processes an anti-angiogenic activity depending on the main constituent anthocyanidins (delphinidin, cyanidin, and malvidin), presumably via antioxidant effects.
Additionally, in vitro and in vivo, Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) extracts (VME) showed an anti-angiogenic effect on 0.3-30 µg ml(-1)) compared to those of GM6001 (0.1-100 µM; a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor).
In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), VME inhibited VEGF-A-induced proliferation of HUVECs.
According to the vivo assay, intravitreal administration of VME inhibited the formation of neovascular tufts during oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice.
The results suggested that VME may be effective against retinal diseases involving angiogenesis.
Taken altogether, bilberry may be considered a functional remedy for the prevention and treatment of diseases involved angiogenesis, pending to the validation of larger sample size and multicenter human study.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Inhibitory actions of bilberry anthocyanidins on angiogenesis by Matsunaga N1, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Hara H. (PubMed)
(2) Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Extracts Reduce Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo by Matsunaga N1, Chikaraishi Y, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Hara H. (PubMed)
(3) Angiogenesis in Cancer by Naoyo Nishida,1,2 Hirohisa Yano,1 Takashi Nishida,3 Toshiharu Kamura,2 andMasamichi Kojiro. (PMC)
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