Myocardial infarction or heart attack is a medical emergency caused by a reduced and stopped blood flow to the heart.
Most common symptoms of heart attacks are chest pain or discomfort that affects the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw accompanied by shortness of breath, dizziness, faintness, or nausea.
Epidemiologically, episodes of angina are considered an early warning sign that a heart attack may be coming.
In angina, blood flow is stopped than restored, pain recedes within minutes, and the heart is not permanently damaged. However, in some cases, angina may cause some heart muscles to damage without affecting the heart functioning.
Unfortunately, heart attacks without any early warning signs were found in proximately 25% of the patients.
According to statistics, in the US, every year, approximately 790,000 Americans have a heart attack, inclduing 580,000 cases of a first heart attack and 210,000 cases of a recurrent heart attack.
Dr. Fatemeh Kiani, the lead scientist in the examination of the risk factors involved in myocardial infarction said, "Results showed that 70% of patients were women and only 30% were men. 48% of them were illiterate and the patient's mean age was 58.3".
And, "17% of patients (coronary artery diseases history), 25.5% (hypertension history), 26% (diabetes history), 15.5% (cholesterol history), 13% (smoking) and 3% have reported CABG history. The majority of people who referred had inferior MI (40.4%). 67.1% normal rhythm, 2.8% atrial fibrillation and 16% had ventricular tachycardia".
In other words, gender, aging, smoking and medical conditions associated with increased risk of heart disease are some of the most common risk factors found in patients with myocardial infarction.
Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide,. a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.
On finding a potential compound for the prevention of heart attack, researchers examined S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide (SACS, alliin) preventive effect in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia in an animal model.
The study included male Wistar rats pretreated with SACS (40 and 80 mg kg(-1)) orally for 5 weeks followed by ISO (150 mg kg(-1)) administered subcutaneously at an interval of 24 h for 2 days.
The activities of beta-D-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-glucosidase, and acid phosphatase in serum and the heart of ISO-induced rats.associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the heart were increased substantially.
Furthermore, the declined of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and increased Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPases activity significantly (p < 0.05) associated with association of the risk of myocardial infarction were also found ISO-induced rats.
However, pretreatment of alliin 40 and 80 mg kg(-1)) showed a significant (p < 0.05) effect in all the aforementioned biochemical parameters.
In other words, alliin inhibited all risk factors involved in the onset of a heart attack.
In order to reveal more information about alliin anti hear attack activity, researchers investigated the preventive role of SACS on some biochemical parameters, glycoproteins, and hematology in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats.
Treatment of alliin followed by myocardial infarction induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (ISO) (150 mg kg(-1)) at an interval of 24 h for 2 days, not only inhibited all parameters aforementioned study but also inhibited the levels/concentrations of glycoproteins in the heart.
Moreover, levels of pro-inflammation associated with immune response caused by ISO associated with the risk heart attacks were also significantly reduced by pretreatment of alliin.
Based on the results, Dr. Sangeetha T, the lead scientist said, "Oral pretreatment with SACS (40 and 80 mg kg(-1)) daily for a period of 35 days showed a positive effect on all the biochemical parameters studied in ISO-induced rats".
Taken altogether, alliin may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of myocardial infarction,, depending on the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
Intake of alliin in the form of supplements should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Preventive effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide (alliin) on lysosomal hydrolases and membrane-bound ATPases in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats by Sangeetha T1, Darlin Quine S. (PubMed)
(2) Protective effect of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (alliin) on glycoproteins and hematology in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats by Sangeetha T1, Quine SD. (PubMed)
(3) Assessment of Risk Factors in Patients With Myocardial Infarction by Fatemeh Kiani,1 Nasrin Hesabi,1 and Azizollah Arbabisarjou. (PMC)
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